Non-target arthropods are invertebrates that play an essential role in ecosystems as pest controllers
Ecotoxicological effect data are required according to EU legislation (data requirements of Commission Regulation (EU) No 283/2013 and 284/2013 under Regulation (EC) 1107/2009) and other legislations to assess the impact of plant protection products on these non-target species.
Eurofins Agroscience Services offers a wide range of standardized laboratory studies, performed according to the recent IOBC/WPRS guidelines. Studies can be conducted with leaf dwelling organisms such as parasitic wasps (Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Trichogramma cacoeciae), predatory mites (Typhlodromus pyri), aphidophagous predators (Chrysoperla carnea, Coccinella septempunctata) and anthocorid bugs (Orius laevigatus). Furthermore we offer studies with soil dwelling organisms like the carabid species Poecilus cupreus (adults and larvae), the staphylinid beetle Aleochara bilineata, and the lycosid spider genus Pardosa.
- Laboratory Studies – IOBC/WPRS 2000
Test organisms are exposed to treated glass surfaces, such as slides or petri dishes (leaf dwellers) or to quartz sand (soil dwellers). Studies are designed as limit tests or dose response tests including lethal rate (LR) and effect rate (ER) determination.
- Extended Laboratory Studies – IOBC/WPRS 2000 or IOBC 2009
If the results of Tier I studies cannot exclude risks to non-target arthropods. Studies need to be conducted with leaf dwelling organisms as well as soil dwelling organisms. Test organisms are exposed to treated plant materials (leaf discs, detached leaves or whole plants) or to natural soils under laboratory conditions. Plants, e.g. bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) are sprayed in the laboratory, in the field, or outdoors near the testing facility using field application equipment. Soil (e.g. LUFA standard soils) can be treated by over spraying or incorporating of test material. Standard studies can be performed throughout the year, provided that plants can be cultivated indoors (laboratory /greenhouse) during winter. Studies with all organisms except Pardosa sp. can be started at any point in the year. Studies with Pardosa sp. can be started in spring and autumn only as these are dependent on the availability of test organisms.
- Aged Residue Studies – based on IOBC/WPRS 2000
Studies on the effects of aged residues towards non target arthropods are designed to assess plant protection products (PPPs) degradability under outdoor climatic conditions. Leaves for exposure are taken from field crops or from potted plants sprayed outside, simulating a field application. Residual toxicity is evaluated in several bioassays started at defined intervals after treatment. Studies can be linked to residual analysis performed in-house. Plants can be protected from rain during the ageing of pesticide deposits under a UV-permeable automatically operable glass roof. Aged residue studies can be conducted between February and November. The choice of plants depends on the crop where the tested product is used and / or suitability for the test organism (e.g. apple, maize, pepper, beans). Beside leave material also soil samples could be used in aged residue studies, to test the soil dwelling organisms. Ageing studies under laboratory conditions using special lamps with a spectrum resembling daylight conditions can also be conducted.
- Semi-field Studies
A test system has been developed to conduct studies closely simulating field conditions. Test organisms are exposed in cages under natural climatic conditions, sheltered from rain by a UV- permeable roof. Methods are established for Aphidius rhopalosiphi, Chrysoperla carnea and Coccinella septempunctata. Semi-field studies can be performed in Germany between May and October.
On special requirement non-standard tests can be conducted. For example, effects of granulated test items on Aphidius rhopalosiphi (laboratory dust studies); wind tunnel studies to mimic spray drift exposure. Furthermore, our group is currently working on test system development of a laboratory test, e.g. with herbivorous butterfly larvae (Vanessa cardui and Pierris brassicae) feeding on test item treated leaves (exposure via food uptake) to address relevant requirements of current EFSA opinion papers.
For further information, please contact us