Screening of NIAS - Non-Intentionally Added Substances
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Impurities of raw materials and degradation or breakdown products of intentionally added chemicals are called non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). Such chemicals are present in packaging materials, and many of them are foreseeable as the synthesis and reaction pathways of chemicals were well investigated recently.
Nevertheless, a wide range of substances is still unpredictable and need non-target screenings. The state of the art is the application of GC-MS (Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry) technology to screen migration simulants for unknowns. Recent technological developments offer several new approaches like HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) screenings, two dimensional GCs or headspace techniques which provide valuable further information.
Detected NIAS need to be assessed according to Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011, Article 19 to make sure they do not pose a health risk. Such risk assessment is based on the toxicological properties of a substance and the exposure. The toxicology of chemicals was widely ascertained in the last years for REACH registrations and is publicly available. For other substances, computer models like the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) approach are valuable and easy to handle tools to assess the potential hazards.