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Testing >> Wireless/Radio Testing >> RFID - Radio Frequency Identification

Eurofins Product Testing - RFID Testing

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RFID is a wide range of applications aligned with use of very different technologies and operating frequencies. RFIDs are relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. A RFID tag is an object that can be attached to or incorporated into a product, animal or person for the purpose of identification using radio waves.

RFID tags are classified in three types:

1. Passive RFID tags

have no internal power supply. The minute electrical current induced in the antenna by the incoming radio frequency signal provides just enough power for the CMOS integrated circuit (IC) in the tag to power up and transmit a response

2. Semi active or semi passive RFID tags

are very similar to passive RFID tags except for the addition of a small battery. This battery allows the tag IC to be constantly powered, which removes the need for the aerial to be designed to collect power from the incoming signal

3. Active RFID tags

have their own internal power source which is used to power any ICs that generate the outgoing signal. Active RFID tags are typically much more reliable (e.g. fewer errors) than passive tags due to the ability for active tags to conduct a "session" with a reader. Active tags, due to their onboard power supply, also transmit at higher power levels

A RFID system may consists of a wide range of components such as tags, tag readers, edge servers, middle ware and application software.
Typical applications are persons identification systems, document management, vehicle identification (also long distance applications), toll collection, production flow management, military "friend or foe" (IFF) identification etc.

Due to the wide range of applications, frequency ranges and different types of technologies,RFID systems have to fulfill a set of requirements which has to particularly arrange for the intended use. Following basically standards apply for RFID systems.


Frequency Range Field Standard
125 kHz 10 - 20 cm MF (Magnetic Field) EN 300 330
6.78 MHz 1 - 2 m MF EN 300 330
13.56 MHz 1 - 2 m MF EN 300 330
27.12 MHz 1 - 5 m EMF (Electromagnetic Field) EN 300 220
315 MHz 1 - 5 m EMF EN 300 220
433 MHz 1 - 5 m EMF EN 300 220
868 MHz > 200 m EMF EN 302 208
2,45 GHz f(P;Ant.) EMF EN 300 440 / 300 328
5,8 GHz f(P;Ant.) EMF EN 300 440 / 301 893


Frequency FCC Rule subpart
1.705 - 10 MHz 15.223
13.110 - 14.010 MHz 15.225
433,5 - 434,5 MHz 15.240
900, 2400, 5800 MHz 15.247
900, 2400, 5800 MHz, 24 GHz 15.249


RSS 210 Low Power Licence exempt Radio communication Devices


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